Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Agitation Against Uthman: Abu Dhar Ghifari

Abu Dhar Ghifari was an eminent companion of the Holy Prophet and was among the early converts to Islam. His original name was Jandab b Janadah, and he belonged to the Ghifari tribe who had their settlements between Makkah and Syria. The Ghifari tribe was converted to Islam through the efforts of Abu Dhar Ghifari. When the Holy Prophet migrated to Madina, Abu Dhar also came to Madina, and there devoted himself exclusively to prayers and religious meditation. He adopted a more or less ascetic way of life, shunned luxury, and stood for austerity. He is described as the first socialist in Islam. After the death of the Holy Prophet he went to Syria, and undertook Jihad. He was outspoken and he freely criticized the administration where he felt that there was anything wrong. The Holy Prophet said of him that nothing could deter him from speaking whatever he considered to be the truth.

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Abdullah b Saba in Syria and Egypt

Abdullah b Saba in Syria

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Abdullah b Saba in Kufa

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Agitation Against Uthman: Abdullah b Saba

The movement of the Jews for the subversion of Islam from within was spear headed by Abdullah b Saba. He was a Jew of Yemen. At one time the Jews had ruled over Yemen. The movement launched by Abdullah b Saba aimed at the restoration of the glory of the Jews by subverting Islam from within. Abdullah b Saba came to Madina and was converted to Islam. He posed as a champion of Islam, and pretended to live a life of piety according to the injunctions of Islam. He had considerable funds raised by the Jews at his disposal and this money he distributed among the poor. Within a short time Abdullah b Saba became popular with the Muslims.

Subversive activities of Abdullah b Saba

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - The Khyber

Even after expulsion, the Jews did not stop intriguing against the Muslims. After the Hudaibiya pact with the Quraish, the Jews of Khyber entered into conspiracy with some of the tribes to attack Madina. The Holy Prophet anticipated the move of the Jews and marched with a force to Khyber. The Jews were overpowered.

The apostasy campaigns
In the apostasy campaigns the Jews secretly aided the apostates, and incited the tribes who had accepted Islam to apostatize. The designs of the Jews were frustrated, and the apostasy campaigns ended in victory for the Muslims. Then under Abu Bakr and Umar the Muslims embarked on a campaign of conquests. Within a short time the Muslims were masters of Iraq, Persia, Syria and Egypt. That alarmed the Jews. The Jews were now no longer in the position to come in direct confrontation with the Muslims. They therefore changed their strategy, and instead of a direct attack on Islam they resorted to a campaign for the subversion of Islam from within.

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - The Khyber

Even after expulsion, the Jews did not stop intriguing against the Muslims. After the Hudaibiya pact with the Quraish, the Jews of Khyber entered into conspiracy with some of the tribes to attack Madina. The Holy Prophet anticipated the move of the Jews and marched with a force to Khyber. The Jews were overpowered.

The apostasy campaigns
In the apostasy campaigns the Jews secretly aided the apostates, and incited the tribes who had accepted Islam to apostatize. The designs of the Jews were frustrated, and the apostasy campaigns ended in victory for the Muslims. Then under Abu Bakr and Umar the Muslims embarked on a campaign of conquests. Within a short time the Muslims were masters of Iraq, Persia, Syria and Egypt. That alarmed the Jews. The Jews were now no longer in the position to come in direct confrontation with the Muslims. They therefore changed their strategy, and instead of a direct attack on Islam they resorted to a campaign for the subversion of Islam from within.

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Agitation Against Uthman

Banu Qainuqa
After the battle of Badr in 694 C.E. a dispute arose between the Muslims and the Jews of Banu Qainuqa. All attempts to settle the dispute peacefully failed, and the Muslims were forced to accept the challenge of the Jews. The Banu Qainuqa shut themselves in their strongholds, and the Muslims laid siege to their strongholds. The siege lasted for a fortnight, and then brought to bay, the Jews surrendered. The Muslims wanted to kill the Jews for their treachery, but on the intercession of Abdullah bin Ubayy, the Holy Prophet agreed to spare their lives but exiled them from Madina.

Banu Nadeer

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - The Holy Prophet and the Jews

When the Holy Prophet migrated to Madina, there was a considerable number of Jews there. They were wealthy, and commanded great influence as they controlled all trade. The Holy Prophet laid down the policy of "Live and let live" with reference to the Jews. He accordingly entered into a treaty of mutual cooperation and collaboration with them. According to the terms of the treaty, the Jews were to enjoy religious freedom and there was to be no interference .in religious affairs. The Muslims and the Jews were to be on friendly terms, and were to help each other in the promotion of objects of common interest. It was stipulated that the Muslims and the Jews would jointly defend Madina against any enemy from. Without. The Jews were not to give protection to the Quraish of Makkah, and in the event of any attack by the Quraish, both the Muslims and the Jews were to join hands in the defense of the city.

Betrayal of the Jews

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Death of Yazdjurd

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - The Battle of Merv

The Battle of Merv
Yazdjurd crossed the Oxus and sought refuge with the Khaqan of Farghana. After the death of Umar, the Persians revolted against the Muslims and a greater part of Persia was lost to the Muslims. Availing of this opportunity, Yazdjurd with the help of a Turkish force reoccupied Merv.

Conspiracy against Yazdjurd

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Misfortunes of Yazdjurd

At the outset of his reign misfortune stalked the footsteps of Yazdjurd. He came to power at the time when the Muslims were poised to burst across the horizon, and embark on their career of conquests. In 633 C.E. the Muslims under Khalid b Walid conquered a greater part of Iraq then under Persian rule.

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Restoration and exile of Yazdjurd

Prediction of the astrologers
The court astrologers predicted that one of his sons would have a son at whose hands the Sassanian empire would come to grief, and Persia would become subject to foreign rule. Parwez felt much perturbed at this prediction. he placed a sexual embargo on his sons and decreed that none of them was to marry. His sons chafed at this decree. Shahryar his eldest son was secretly married by Shirin to a beautiful girl of a noble family. Of this union a son was born who was named Yazdjurd. The birth of the prince was kept a guarded secret.

Restoration and exile of Yazdjurd

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Yazdjurd in history

Yazdjurd, the last of the Sassanid emperors of Persia is one of the most tragic figures of human history. He was born under an unlucky star; misfortune dogged his steps through out his life. He died young at the age of forty-one. For the first half of his life, he had to live in hiding as an exile. For the second half of his life, though a king in name, he had to run for life from pillar to post, and post to pillar. His death took place under tragic circumstances. He fell a victim to the treachery and disloyalty of his own people. His people even did not allow him a burial.

Chosroes Parwez

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Campaigns in Transoxiana

After consolidating the Muslim authority in Khurasan, Abdullah bin 'Aamir crossed the Oxus and invaded Transoxiana. Details of these campaigns are not known but the source books tell us that a greater part of Transoxiana submitted to the suzerainty of the Muslim rule. Abdullah b 'Aamir returned triumphant to Nishapur. Through his military campaigns lasting for some three years, he had not only reconquerd Khurasan, he had conquered a greater part of Transoxiana as well, which had been heretofore beyond the access of the Muslims. Abdullah b 'Aamir had successfully fulfilled the mission entrusted to him by Uthman, and on the occasion of the Hajj he started from Nishapur to Makkah clad in the Ihram-the pilgrim's garb.

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Revolt in Khurasan

On the death of Umar, like the rest of Persia, Khurasan also revolted and broke away from the authority of the Muslims. Yazdjurd the Persian emperor made Merv his head quarters, and once again made preparations to measure swords with the Muslims and drive them out of Persia. Before Yazdjurd could lead the Persian forces against the Muslims, Yazdjurd fell a victim to the treachery and disloyalty of his own people, and he was killed in 651 C.F.

Reconquest of Khurasan
On the death of Yazdjurd, Uthman directed Abdullah bin 'Aamir the Governor General of Basra to undertake campaigns for the reconquest of Khurasan. Abdullah b 'Aamir took the field in person and marched at the head of a large force to Khurasan.

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