Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Ibn Saba's Subversive Movement

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Campaign of Vilification Against Uthman

International situation
During the caliphate of Umar, the Muslim dominions had expanded considerably both in the east and the west. Umar was a strong man, but Uthman who succeeded him was known for his kindheartedness. The foreign powers felt that with Uthman as the Caliph, it would be possible for them to wrest the territories from the Muslims which they had conquered during the caliphate of Umar. In pursuance of this program to overthrow the Muslim rule, Persia rose in revolt in the east, and the Byzantines attacked Egypt in the west to drive away the Muslims.

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - 'Ammar b Yasir during the caliphate of Uthman

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - 'Ammar bin Yaris

'Ammar b Yasir and Uthman

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Ummair and Kammil

Conspiracy to murder Uthman

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Dhabi b Harith

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Battle of the Camel

When after the assassination of Uthman, Ali became the Caliph Talha and Zubair took the allegiance to Ali, but soon they repudiated such allegiance and supported the demand for vengeance for the blood of Uthman. Talha, Zubair, and Ayesha occupied Basra and the battle of the Camel was fought between the supporters of Ali, and the supporters of Talha, Zubair, and Ayesha outside Basra. In this battle, Ali won and the cause of Talha and Zubair was lost. Talha escaped from the battlefield, but fell a victim to an arrow shot by Marwan b Hakam. If is reported on the authority of Alqama b Waqas that in Basra, Talha said that he was guilty of a lapse in the matter of his conduct towards Uthman, and he wanted to atone for such lapse by supporting the demand for the vengeance for the blood of Uthman.

Taha Hussain's view

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Talha bin Ubaidullah

Early life
Talha b Ubaidullah belonged to the Taym section of the Quraish. He was closely related to Abu Bakr. He became a Muslim at the young age of fifteen, and was among the early Muslim converts. He migrated to Madina in 622 C.E., along with the family of Abu Bakr.

He played an important part in the battle of Uhud. He received numerous wounds in his effort to save the Holy Prophet. He pulled the Holy Prophet from the ditch in which he had fallen. He was also very active in the battle of the Trench. He was one of the persons to whom Holy Prophet had given the tidings of paradise. He was one of the six members of the board which had been constituted by Umar to choose his successor.

Uthman and Talha

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Abdur Rahman bin Auf

Early life
Abdur Rahman bin Auf was born around 580 C.E., and was younger than the Holy Prophet by ten years. He was one of the early converts to Islam. He was related to Uthman and was married to a step sister of Uthman. In the battle of Uhud he received twenty-one wounds while defending the Holy Prophet. On this occasion he also lost some of his teeth. He was a trader and a shrewd businessman. It is related that when he came to Madinah his Ansar brother Sa 'ad proposed to give half of his property to him. Sa'ad had two wives, and he proposed to divorce one of them so that Abdur Rahman could marry her. Abdur Rahman thanked his brother and said that he did not need his property or any of his wives. He merely wanted him to show him the way to the market, and he would make his own fortune. Soon Abdur Rahman was able to build a great fortune. He amassed considerable wealth and came to be regarded as one of the richest men in Madina.

Abdur Rahman and Uthman

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Analysis of the Accounts

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Abdullah b Masud and Uthman

After the death of Umar when Uthman became the Caliph, Abdullah b Masud addressed the citizens of Kufa in the mosque, and exhorted them to take the oath of allegiance to Uthman, as he was the best choice for the caliphate. In the second year of his caliphate, Uthman appointed Sa 'ad b Abi Waqas as the Governor of Kufa. Soon a quarrel arose between Sa'ad and Abdullah. Sa'ad took some loan from the Baitul Mal and failed to return it within the stipulated period. Abdullah b Masud insisted on the repayment of the loan. The dispute grew and culminated in the deposition of Sa'ad b Abi Waqas. After Sa'ad, Walid b Uqba was appointed as the Governor of Kufa. At one time Abdullah b Masud used to shepherd the goats of Uqba b Abi Moheet the father of Walid. To start with the relationship between Walid and Abdullah b Masud was very cordial, but later differences grew between the two.

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Agitation Against Uthman: Abdullah b Masud

Early Life
Abdullah b Masud was an eminent companion of the Holy Prophet. He was among the early converts to Islam. He migrated to Abyssinia and was supported there by Uthman. On return from Abyssinia he migrated to Madinah. He entered into brotherhood with Muadh b Jabal of the Ansars. He participated in all the campaigns undertaken by the Holy Prophet. On the occasion of the battle of Badr, he had the distinction of cutting off the head of Abu Jahl the arch enemy of Islam. In Madinah he became an attendant of the Holy Prophet. Whenever the Holy Prophet came to the mosque Abdullah b Masud held his shoes. On Fridays' Abdullah b Masud while reading the Holy Prophet to the pulpit carried his scepter in front of him.

After the death of the Holy Prophet

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Exile of Abu Dhar Ghifari

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Abu Dhar Ghifari in Madinah

Abu Dhar Ghifari had come to Madinah after some ten years. During this period a great change had taken place in the environments. Palatial buildings had sprung up, and the city had expanded up to the hill of "Sala'a". Abu Dhar Ghifari stayed in the Prophet's mosque, and addressing the people he said, "O the people of Madinah, you have departed from the ways of the Holy Prophet. You are after amassing wealth; you have raised palatial buildings, and have become the victims of luxury. I give you the tidings of troubled times that lie ahead, for the Holy Prophet said that when the city expanded to the Sala'a hill there would be trouble for the people."

Khalifa Uthman bin Affan - Abu Dhar and Amir Muawiyah

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